Clima / Mesa redonda "The New Climate and Development Imperative" - Intervention de Laurent Fabius
Leia a seguir, o discurso de Laurent Fabius pronunciado durante a mesa redonda com o tema "The New Climate and Development Imperative", durante o Fórum Econômico Mundial de Davos.
"Thank you, Mr President.
Last year, I was in Davos, and when discussing with some of you about the preparation of the COP21 in Paris, the most favourite sentence was : « good luck ! ». We have done it together, and I would like to thank all of you for that, because it is a common achievement. Thank you. But now we have to deliver. I’m still the President of the COP until November, when our Moroccan friends will take over, and I will tell you here in Davos how I see the coming months, and answer the questions raised by our President.
Firstly, like our friend Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said, in april we have to get together, heads of state and government, in order to sign and then to ratify the agreement. We have to have 55 countries, representing at least 55% of greenhouse gas emissions, in order for the Paris agreement to come into force. So, april - that is the first thing.
Secondly, in may, we shall have meetings with all the nations in order to get into the details of the Paris agreement. This Paris agreement is, on the one hand, an international agreement, with 29 articles, and a decision, with 140 bullet points. But there are still some elements which have to be specified : what does « transparency » mean ? how do we report ? and so forth. Therefore, in may we have to work on that in order to be precise. Then we shall have, and I’ll answer your questions, to implement both state agreements and non-governmental actors’ agreements. About inter-state agreements, there are a lot of things that we are committed to do. For instance, we have said - and we must deliver - that rich countries must give money for climate to developing countries, and we have to give money and to check. We have to invest in Africa - I take this example - in order to launch large electricity programmes for Africa. We have to launch the programme that we call « CREWS Programm e » : the idea is to have an early warning system to warn populations, especially on small islands and in difficult areas, that typhoons are coming, and so on. Therefore, a lot of things.
We, as states, have to work on two important sectors which are not included of the Paris Agreement but which are very important : air transport and maritime transport, which are emitting a lot of greenhouse gases, and it is not included in the Paris Agreement for many reasons. Therefore we have to work on that in 2016 because it is a real issue.
Then, about non-state actors, like local authorities, and there are a lot of commitments by regions, by cities, and we have to check that they are implemented. Then we have companies : Paul is doing a wonderful job, and you have to keep on, Paul, because there are many and ambitious commitments that have been taken by different companies and the have to be implemented, and we have to do that, if I may say so, together. Then we also have to be sure that new initiatives will be taken in civil society and probably one of us, and probably you, will insist on that, because it is not only states, not only private companies, it is a whole society which has to be committed. Then we have to be sure that finance is delivered and not only public finance - it is very important - , here we have a lot of CEOs, the decisive factor is when everybody - and it is growing - will have understood that now the time has come to invest in new technologies, in energy efficiency... It is a new world , and you will have disinvestments and new investments, and this move is quite decisive because the figures are very high and will be much higher, and even the public ones are necessary.
Now, my final comment - because I don’t want to be too long : in the Paris Agreement, it has been decided that the President of the different COPs will choose a champion. Therefore, as I said, I will choose a champion in a few days, and this champion will have the responsibility to check that everything is in the right place, with you and with the President of the COP. And there is the decision which has been taken that every single year there has to be a special event for these non-governmental actions. My plea, stemming from the experiment of Paris, is that this special event with non-governmental actors has to take place at the same place and at the same time as the COP, because one of the reasons why we had such a success in Paris is that it was not only governments - obviously this was decisive - but also private companies, but also local authorities, and also NGOs, and also civil society. And it is really decisive that every single year in the future in the COP we hav e a special event where everybody can check what has been done and can make propositions for the future.
If we implement that very ambitious programme, things will have to go in the right direction. Thank you.
Two observations. First, about carbon pricing : I think it is a major issue, because today, if we simplify, when you pollute you have subsidies, and when you don’t pollute you pay high prices. It’s not really reasonable. However, in 2017 we shall have at least three major zones where we shall have carbon pricing : China, Canada and Europe, and hopefully some others. I think we have to act in order to develop and to foster this carbon pricing because it will change the mix and make it easier.
Now my final comment : I am, at the same time, Minister of Foreign Affairs, and this agreement in Paris is not only an agreement about climate, it is much larger. It has implications on the whole economy ; it has social implications, implications on food security, implications on migration, because you can imagine what it means in terms of migration. We have problems today in Europe because of some hundreds of thousands of people migrating, but if it is a question of thousands, of millions of people, what will happen ? At the end of the day, it’s a question of war and peace, and I think this agreement is a major pillar for security. And we have to explain that to those who have not yet understood that. But so far, as business is concerned, I’m fully confident. As the Secretary-General was saying, it is not the final point, it is a turning point. But now there is no way back, and companies that don’t understand that it’s in their own interest and everybody’s interest to go in that direction will be lagging behind."
Davos, dia 21 de janeiro de 2016